Concluding Remarks & For Further Reading

In conclusion, industrial laboratories emerged during the 1900s, at least partly because of the competitive commercial interests of the companies that founded them. These early centers of research and development were supported by the war efforts of World War I. This planted the seeds of government cooperation with industrial science as well as academia. The war also produced open competition between the professions of invention and academic science that added momentum to research and development pursuits. World War I research and development promoted rapid advances in aviation, wireless communication, machine guns, and torpedo technology, as well as brand new innovations such as poison gases and synthetic nitrogen compounds as well as tanks. World War II advanced and solidified the military-industrial complex, producing the large, government-funded national laboratories that are important to modern day research and development. This essay focused on the developments of synthetic rubber and the atomic bomb in the U.S. during World War II, but other technologies promoted by research and development for the war included radar-based air defense, internal combustion aircraft engines, electronics systems, and the industrial production of penicillin. Overall, competition at the industrial, professional, and national level contributed to the evolution of modern R&D.

Written by Jillian Dawley, Biochemistry, LMU '18

For Further Reading

Bebie, Jules. Du Pont Blasters’ Handbook: Describing the Practical Methods of Using Explosives for Various Purposes. Wilmington, Delaware: E.I. du Pont De Nemours and Company, 1923.

Brantz, Dorothee. “Environments of Death: Trench Warfare on the Western Front, 1914-1918.” In Williams-Ford Texas A&M University Military History Series : War and the Environment : Military Destruction in the Modern Age., edited by Charles E. Closeman. College Station: Texas A&M Univeristy Press, 2009.

Fitzgerald, Gerard J. “Chemical Warfare and Medical Response During World War I.” American Journal of Public Health 98, no. 4 (2008): 611–25.

Hale, George Ellery. “National Academies and the Progress of Research. II.” Science 41, no. 1044 (2015): 12–23.

Hughes, Thomas. American Genesis: A Century of Invention and Technological Enthusiasm, 1870-1970. New York: Viking Penguin, 1989.

Le Roux, Muriel. “From Science to Industry: The Sites of Aluminium in France from the Nineteenth to the Twentieth Century.” Ambix 62, no. 2 (2015): 114–37.

Misa, Thomas J. Leonardo to the Internet: Technology & Culture from the Renaissance to the Present. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004.

Murmann, Johann Peter. “Chemical Industries after 1850.” Professor Murmann’s Web, 2002.

Palmer, A. Mitchell. Aims and Purposes of the Chemical Foundation, Incorporated : And the Reasons for Its Organization. New York: The De Vinne Press, 1919.

Rexmond, Cochrane C. The National Academy of Sciences: The First Hundred Years, 1863-1963. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences, 1978.

--Available online.

Rowe, David J. M. “History of the Chemical Industry 1750 to 1930 – an Outline.” Royal Society of Chemistry, 1998.

Tucker, Richard P. Insatiable Appetite: The United States and the Ecological Degradation of the Tropical World. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000.

“Pure and Applied Science Merging, Says Professor: Scorn of the ‘Useful’ Is Going Out of Style in the Best Academic Circles––The Engineer Has Made Research Supply Everyday Demands.” The New York Times, April 1, 1923. Accessed via ProQuest Historical Newspapers.

Concluding Remarks & For Further Reading